Steel types

Steel weapons and armour are made from different types of steel. Each type of steel has its own properties. Another thing to keep in mind when purchasing a weapon or steel armour is the hardness of the steel.


The hardness of steel (tempering) is expressed in HRC or Rockwell hardness. The harder the steel, the more durable it is. If you want to use a battle ready sword for training and live combat, we recommend a hardness of at least 48 HRC and preferable between 50-52 HRC. 

Steel types

Steel consists of different components. Depending on the exact mixture of powdered steel and alloying elements, the steel will have different properties. Steel also gets heat treatment, which will also affect the final properties of the steel.

The following steel types are most commonly used in weapons and armour.

EN45 spring steel

Spring steel is a form of carbon steel, but with added alloying elements. It has a great structural strength and resistance to deformation. However, because it is still a carbon steel type, it is prone to rusting. Spring steel is often used for training swords and swords used in live combat. 

9260 tempered spring steel

This spring steel is very similar to the EN45 spring steel. 9260 tempered spring steel is very flexible which makes it a good material for rapiers, smallswords and large, curved swords. This type of steel is a bit more resistant to corrosion than other types of carbon steel.

1045/1065/1095 carbon steel

Carbon steel is an affordable, but high quality steel type that is often used for swords. It’s a relatively soft steel, which makes it easy to regrind, but is surprisingly strong when properly tempered and hardened. Out of these three qualities 1045 is the lowest and 1095 is the highest quality. The biggest downside is that carbon steel rusts quite easily, so it needs regular maintenance. 


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